What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate gland, a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces seminal fluid. While it typically grows slowly and remains confined to the prostate gland, in some cases, it can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

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Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Early-stage prostate cancer often doesn’t cause any symptoms. However, as the cancer progresses, symptoms may include:

1. Difficulty urinating
2. Weak or interrupted urine flow
3. Frequent urination, especially at night
4. Blood in the urine or semen
5. Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area
6. Erectile dysfunction
7. Bone pain, especially in the spine, hips, or ribs (indicating advanced disease)

Risk Factors

While the exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, several risk factors may increase a man’s likelihood of developing the disease:

1. Age: Risk increases with age, particularly after age 50.
2. Family History: Men with a family history of prostate cancer, especially in a father or brother, are at higher risk.
3. Race: African American men have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than men of other races.
4. Lifestyle Factors: Poor diet, lack of exercise, obesity, and smoking may increase the risk.

Detection and Diagnosis

Early detection of prostate cancer significantly improves treatment outcomes. Common methods used for detection and diagnosis include:

1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: This blood test measures the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate the presence of prostate cancer, but further testing is needed to confirm.
2. Digital Rectal Exam (DRE): During this exam, a healthcare provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities in the prostate gland.
3. Biopsy: If abnormalities are detected during the PSA test or DRE, a biopsy may be performed to collect tissue samples from the prostate gland for analysis under a microscope.

Treatment Options

Treatment for prostate cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, its aggressiveness, and the patient’s overall health. Treatment options may include:

1. Active Surveillance: Monitoring the cancer closely but not immediately treating it unless it progresses.
2. Surgery: Surgical removal of the prostate gland (prostatectomy) may be recommended for localized prostate cancer.
3. Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams are used to target and kill cancer cells in the prostate gland.
4. Hormone Therapy: Medications are used to block the production of testosterone, which can fuel the growth of prostate cancer cells.
5. Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to kill cancer cells, often recommended for advanced prostate cancer.
6. Immunotherapy: Treatment that boosts the body’s immune system to fight cancer cells.


While there’s no guaranteed way to prevent prostate cancer, adopting a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk:

1. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.
2. Eat a Balanced Diet: Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
3. Exercise Regularly: Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week.
4. Limit Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol intake may increase the risk of prostate cancer.
5. Don’t Smoke: If you smoke, seek help to quit, as smoking has been linked to several types of cancer, including prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer is a significant health concern for men, but with early detection and advancements in treatment, the outlook is improving. By understanding the risk factors, being vigilant about screening, and adopting a healthy lifestyle, men can take proactive steps to reduce their risk and improve their overall health and well-being.

Remember, knowledge is power. If you have any concerns about prostate cancer or your prostate health, don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment with one of our board certified Urologists. Stay informed, stay proactive, and take charge of your health.