Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic organs, such as the bladder, uterus, or rectum, bulge into the vaginal wall due to weakened or damaged pelvic floor muscles and tissues. Pelvic organ prolapse surgery is a medical intervention aimed at repairing and supporting the structures that have descended into the vaginal area.
There are several surgical approaches to treat pelvic organ prolapse, and the choice of procedure depends on factors such as the severity of prolapse, the specific organs involved, the patient’s overall health, and their preference. Some common types of pelvic prolapse surgeries include:
  1. Anterior or Posterior Colporrhaphy: This surgery involves repairing the front (anterior) or back (posterior) vaginal wall where the bladder or rectum may protrude.
    Vaginal Mesh Surgery: In some cases, surgeons use a synthetic mesh to provide additional support to the weakened pelvic tissues. However, the use of vaginal mesh has been a topic of controversy due to complications and adverse effects, and its use has become more restricted in some regions.
    Sacrocolpopexy: This is a more complex procedure where a mesh is used to attach the top of the vagina to a ligament near the tailbone (sacrum) or the lower part of the spine.
    Hysterectomy: In cases where the uterus is contributing to the prolapse, removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) may be recommended as part of the treatment.
    Uterosacral Ligament Suspension: This surgery involves attaching the top of the vagina to ligaments in the pelvis for additional support.
It’s important to note that not all cases of pelvic organ prolapse require surgery, and conservative approaches such as pelvic floor physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and the use of supportive devices (like pessaries) may be considered as well. The choice of treatment depends on the individual’s symptoms, overall health, and the extent of pelvic organ prolapse. Patients should discuss the risks, benefits, and alternatives.